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What is Linguistics: Uncovering the Hidden Facts

Rana Shaban Saleem

What is Linguistics?

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It is a broad and interdisciplinary field that encompasses a wide range of topics, including the structure, meaning, and use of language. Linguists are thoroughly interested in all human languages, both spoken and signed, and they analyze their different aspects, including:

Descriptive linguistics: This realm of linguistics gives the description of individual languages, their sound systems, grammar, and vocabulary.

Theoretical linguistics: This niche of linguistics develops and tests theories about the nature of language and how it works.

Applied linguistics: This subfield uses linguistic knowledge to solve practical problems, such as teaching languages and developing language methodologies and technologies.

Some of the major subfields of linguistics include:

Phonetics and phonology: These subfields study the sound systems of languages. Phonetics is concerned with the physical production and perception of speech sounds, while phonology is concerned with the abstract patterns of sound systems.

Morphology: This subfield studies the structure of words. Morphologists examine how words are formed from smaller units, such as morphemes, and how they change meaning depending on their morphology.

Syntax: This subfield studies the structure of sentences. Syntacticians examine how words are combined to form sentences and how the meaning of a sentence is determined by its syntactic structure.

Semantics: This subfield studies the meaning of language. Semanticists examine how words and sentences convey meaning, and how the meaning of language is influenced by context.

Pragmatics: This subfield studies how language is used in social contexts. Pragmatists examine how factors such as the speaker’s intentions, the listener’s expectations, and the shared knowledge of the participants influence the interpretation of language.

Linguists also study the history of language change, the acquisition of language by children and adults, and the relationship between language and other aspects of human culture and cognition.


Why is linguistics important?

It helps us to understand the fundamental features and nature of human language. Language is one of the most important features of our species, and it allows us to communicate with each other, express our thoughts and feelings, and share our culture. By studying language, linguists can help us to better understand ourselves and the world around us.

Linguistics has practical applications in a number of fields. For example, linguists are chieftains in the development of language teaching materials, methodologies and technologies, they also participate in the creation of speech recognition and machine translation systems and finally embed them into speech recognition software, and the linguist-cum-doctors diagnose and treat language disorders.

Finally, linguistics can help us understand the diversity of human languages and cultures. There are more than 7,000 languages spoken in the world today, we can learn more about the different ways that people communicate and express themselves.



Linguistics is a fascinating and important field of study. It offers a unique perspective on human language and culture, and it has a wide range of practical applications. If you are interested in learning more about language, I encourage you to explore the field of linguistics.

Nankana Sahib